The Alqueva Dam – An Oasis in the Alentejo

Written By Zé Eduardo Penedo

The Alqueva Dam, located in the heart of the Alentejo, is one of Europe’s largest dams. Constructed on the Guadiana River and completed in 2002, it creates the Alqueva Reservoir, Western Europe’s largest artificial lake. The dam plays a crucial role in regional irrigation, water supply, and hydroelectric power generation. Additionally, it supports local tourism and wildlife habitats and exemplifies a completely transformational engineering achievement.

Before the dam was built, the Alentejo was known for its arid landscapes and scorching summers. Today, the scenario has changed dramatically. Lake Alqueva has become an oasis that attracts visitors from all over the world.

Whether sailing the tranquil waters of the lake, hiking the picturesque trails or stargazing in one of the clearest skies in Europe, the Alqueva Dam gives visitors an incredible opportunity to connect with nature and admire the mighty engineering effort that powers the region.

Ana Teresa Jeremias Rosado, Alqueva Dam, Flickr

An Engineering Marvel

The Alqueva Dam is one of the largest in Europe, with a height of 96 meters and a length of 458 meters. The reservoir created by the dam, Lake Alqueva, covers an area of 250 square kilometers and stretches 83 kilometers in length. The main purpose of the dam is to provide water for irrigation, generate hydroelectric power, and supply the region with drinking water.

The construction of the dam involved significant challenges, including the relocation of entire villages and the preservation of archaeological sites. Modern technology and meticulous planning ensured the successful completion of the project, which now serves as crucial infrastructure for the Alentejo region.

What to See and What to Do around the Great Lake

Lake Alqueva and its surrounding areas offer a multitude of activities for visitors, from water sports to cultural excursions. Here are some of the must-see attractions and activities around the Alqueva Dam:

Alqueva Dam, Manuel Faisco, Flickr

Water Sports and Boat Trips

Lake Alqueva is a paradise for water sports enthusiasts. Visitors can enjoy sailing, kayaking and paddleboarding on the lake’s tranquil waters. Several local companies offer boat rentals and guided tours, providing a unique perspective of the stunning landscape. The calm, expansive waters are perfect for beginners and experienced sportsmen alike.

Dark Sky Alqueva

The Alqueva region is famous for its exceptionally clear skies, making it one of the best places in the world for stargazing. The Dark Sky Alqueva Reserve, the first site in the world to receive the “Starlight Tourist Destination” certification, offers visitors an unparalleled opportunity to observe the night sky. The observatory offers guided tours, telescopic observations, and astrophotography workshops.

Moura and Monsaraz

The picturesque towns of Moura and Monsaraz, located near the Alqueva Dam, are rich in history and charm. Moura is known for its beautiful gardens, historic castle, and the Mouraria district, which showcases the town’s Moorish heritage. Monsaraz, situated on top of a hill, offers breathtaking views of Lake Alqueva and features well-preserved medieval architecture, narrow cobbled streets and an ancient castle. Both towns offer a glimpse into the region’s rich cultural and historical past.

F. Nestares P., Monsaraz, Flickr

Wine Tasting

The Alentejo region is famous for its wine production, and a visit to the Alqueva area wouldn’t be complete without a wine tasting tour. Numerous wineries and vineyards offer guided tours and tastings, allowing visitors to sample some of Portugal’s finest wines. The combination of the region’s unique climate and traditional winemaking techniques results in exceptional wines that are highly prized both nationally and internationally.

White wine, Iva Mananquil, Flickr

Nature Trails and Hikes

For those who prefer land-based activities, the Alqueva region offers several nature trails and walks. The trails wind through scenic countryside, olive groves, and cork oak forests, providing opportunities for bird and wildlife watching. The routes vary in difficulty and cater to both casual and experienced hikers. The serene surroundings and picturesque landscapes make hiking in this region a truly enjoyable experience.

Aldeia da Luz and Riverside Villages

Aldeia da Luz is a modern village built to replace the original village that was submerged by Lake Alqueva. The new village preserves the cultural and architectural heritage of the old village, offering a fascinating glimpse into the lives of the inhabitants who were relocated. The Museu da Luz, located in the village, provides an in-depth look at the history, archaeology, and anthropology of the region, making it an interesting stop for history buffs.

Amieira Marina

Amieira Marina is a popular starting point for exploring Lake Alqueva. The marina offers a range of services, including boat rental, fishing equipment, and guided tours. It is also home to a floating hotel, providing a unique accommodation experience. Visitors can enjoy a peaceful boat trip, try their hand at fishing or simply relax and take in the stunning views of the lake.

Mourão Castle

Mourão Castle, located near the town of Mourão, is another historic site worth visiting. The castle, which dates back to the 13th century, offers panoramic views of Lake Alqueva and the surrounding countryside. The castle’s well-preserved walls and towers provide a fascinating insight into the region’s medieval history.

Mourão Castle
Mourão Castle, David Barrigoto, Flickr


The diverse habitats around Lake Alqueva make it a paradise for birdwatchers. The region is home to a variety of bird species, including some rare and endangered ones. Birdwatching tours and excursions are available, offering enthusiasts the chance to observe birds in their natural habitats. The best times for birdwatching are during the spring and fall migrations, when the variety and number of birds are at their peak.

Traditional Cuisine

No visit to the Alentejo region would be complete without sampling its traditional cuisine. The local gastronomy is characterized by substantial and tasty dishes, often made with local ingredients. Some must-try dishes include “açorda” (a bread soup), “migas” (a dish made from stale bread) and “porco preto” (black Iberian pork). Numerous restaurants and taverns in the area serve these and other traditional dishes, providing a delicious culinary experience.

Sustainable Tourism and Environmental Awareness

The development of tourism around the Alqueva Dam has been carried out with a strong emphasis on sustainability and environmental preservation. Efforts have been made to ensure that tourism activities do not harm the natural environment and that local communities benefit economically from tourism. Initiatives such as the Dark Sky Alqueva Reserve and ecological accommodation highlight the region’s commitment to sustainable tourism.

Final Thoughts

The Alqueva Dam and its surrounding areas offer a diverse range of attractions and activities to suit all types of travelers. From water sports and stargazing to exploring historic towns and tasting world-class wines, the Alqueva region promises a memorable experience. The combination of natural beauty, rich cultural heritage, and modern amenities makes it a perfect destination for those seeking both adventure and relaxation.

Whether you’re an outdoor enthusiast, a history buff or a lover of good food, the Alqueva region has something for you. Its unique blend of tradition and modernity, along with its commitment to sustainability, makes it a shining example of how tourism can positively impact a region. Plan your visit to the Alqueva Dam and discover the many wonders that await in this remarkable part of Portugal.

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